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Version:

June 14, 2010:
Revised: v2.0

ZL2PD Programmable CMOS Clock Generator

Several CMOS ICs are used to create a programmable digital clock reference for use with frequency counters and other digital circuits. Several different versions are described.
These designs were originally published in 'Break-In', New Zealand's amateur radio magazine in Sept/Oct 2009, and are republished here with the permission of the editor.
Note: 'Break-In' is a term used in amateur radio to describe a system which allows another person's signal to be heard in the brief intervals between transmitted Morse Code symbols.  

Introduction

Digital clock generators form the ‘beating heart’ or 'time keeper' in a number of circuits such as tone generators, frequency counters, and A/D converters. Many chips these days include the necessary internal clock generator circuitry. For the remainder, if you have complete design freedom, it’s easy to select and source a single chip for such tasks. Unfortunately, such “ideal” parts are becoming hard to purchase, particularly in the tiny volumes required for hobbyist use.

For unusual clock frequencies, such as the two frequencies I wanted for my digital dial, it’s typical to use a crystal oscillator followed by a divider chain. In this case, it’s possible to use a string of 74LS390 divide-by-10 chips or one of the 4020/4040/4060 CMOS binary dividers, for example, and a crystal of some suitable multiple. Unfortunately, this inevitably raises the next obvious problem - Locating the necessary crystal which often must be on some equally unusual, albeit higher, frequency.

What I was wanted was a digital clock generator design which would allow me to use almost any crystal I had in my junk-box and which used cheap, easy to find parts.

This article describes my solution to this problem. Actually, it describes two similar solutions. In this case, I was looking for a method to provide two non-standard clock frequencies of 31.25 and 29.85 Hz. While other options exist, the solution described here may also be a useful programmable clock generator solution for a number of other applications. In addition, it only uses a few standard easy-to-find CMOS chips.


Available Options

When designing a system to deliver a square wave at some frequency, there are a number of choices. These include:

A suitably programmed microprocessor
Specialised programmable clock chips, and
Standard CMOS chips

The microprocessor is the most obvious solution for this requirement, and it can be quite inexpensive. For example, an 8-pin PIC chip or a similar sized PICAXE device are almost ideal. The latter devices can be programmed in a simple version of the BASIC programming language, making them easier for beginners to use.

The disadvantage of using any form of microprocessor is the need for a PC, a programming interface of some sort, and some specialized software. For many, there can be a forbidding and largely uncertain learning curve to be overcome in order to achieve a satisfactory result from a microprocessor. Also, despite the low cost of the microprocessor, the startup costs for the items noted as well as initial kits of software CDs, cables, boards and other hardware necessary to get started can also be surprisingly high.

There is also the potential for relatively high levels of RF interference to be generated by some microprocessors. This can be quite a problem to resolve. In my case, I wanted to use the clock in a digital dial for an HF transceiver so I was keen to avoid any such problems. While it is true that any form of square wave clock source can become an interference source, some microprocessors can be particularly bad offenders in this respect.

The ideal solution for my application was the next option, one of the relatively recent programmable clock chips from companies such as Cypress (See Reference 1 - References are listed at the bottom of this page). These chips are used as programmable clock sources in PCs and other devices. Several software defined radios (SDR) also make use of these. The difficulties with these chips include obtaining the required parts, as well as the various hardware/software accessories required to program or use them. While their features, cost and performance makes them ideal for use, these factors sadly pushed this option out of contention for my application.

The third alternative was to use standard CMOS chips. While easier to purchase, the resulting design was inevitably going to be physically larger than either of the previous options. However, CMOS parts are usually still able to be purchased, and it doesn’t require a PC and software to get the circuit going. Generally, then, for the hobbyist at least, this is an acceptable compromise. This was the approach chosen for this design.

Design Options

Two designs are shown in some detail here, beginning with a three CMOS chip design. This was later simplified to a “two chip plus transistor” design. Both are shown here to permit the selection of a design for your application. Both feature standard and inverted square wave outputs. This was required for my digital dial, and it’s a common requirement for a number of other applications.

The three chip design is designed around a CD4040 CMOS binary divider chip. This offers division ratios across the entire range from 1 to 2048. The second design, using two chips and a transistor oscillator, is designed with the similar CD4060 CMOS chip. This offers a wider division ratio, up to 16384. While it allows the use of a greater range of crystal frequencies, the CD4060 importantly omits several divider outputs. This results in gaps in crystal frequencies which can be used to generate specific clock frequencies, or gaps in output frequencies available from specific crystals. Same issue - It just depends which way you look at it!

I developed a simple Excel spreadsheet to help me cope with this issue. Of course, this requires the use of a PC and software…. As I’ll show later, a pencil and paper can also be used to figure out settings for any available crystals to give a required clock output, albeit at the cost of more of your time.

Three Chip Version

Figure 1 shows the three-chip design. It uses a 4001 as the crystal oscillator, a 4040 binary divider, and a 4027 flip-flop used to reset the 4040 counter when a specific divider has been reached. The 4040 outputs go logic-high when a specific divider ratio has been reached. Diodes are used to logic-OR selected outputs to produce any required division ratios up to 4096. The second flip-flop in the 4027 package delivers a precision square wave output with equal on/off cycle times. As mentioned earlier, the 4027 also produces both normal and inverted outputs.
 


 
Figure 1 : Three chip version using a CD4040 binary divider supports divider ratios up to 2048
 


Several designs along similar lines may be found on the internet. These designs will prove traps for the unwary. For example, they avoid the use of proper clocking for resetting the binary divider chip. Instead, they resort to delaying the reset pulse through one or more spare CMOS gates, or use a capacitor on the reset line to extend the reset pulse to permit the chip to reset properly.

Both methods tend to be problematic. The values of such capacitors have to be adjusted to suit various crystal frequencies, and neither method works perfectly with higher speed HC4040 and HC4001 CMOS devices. Problems include odd and erratic division ratios, and high rates of jitter on square wave outputs.

The use of edge-triggered reset methods with the CD4027 shown here resolves these problems, even with highest crystal frequencies I tried, around 33 MHz.

A further minor change is required depending on the frequency of the crystal used. Figure 2 shows the changes required when using very low frequency ‘tuning fork’ type resonators. The two most commonly available resonators are 32768 Hz watch or clock crystals, and 38.0 kHz crystals, mostly used for remote control applications.
 

Figure 2 : An alternative oscillator configuration for low frequency crystals


Two Chip Version

I wanted to reduce the number of chips to reduce the required PCB area. While I would have liked to find a totally reliable and repeatable single standard CMOS chip solution, the best I could come up with uses these two chips, along with a simple single transistor oscillator stage. This is shown here in Figure 3.




Figure 3 : Two chip version with the CD4060 supports divider ratios up to 16384

While using more parts overall, the PCB area was reduced, and arguably, the cost is probably lower too, since transistors are commonly found in the junk-box while the CMOS ICs you want just never seem to be on-hand when required.

This version also uses the CD4060 binary divider. As noted earlier, this extends the maximum division ratio to 16384, but with the loss of the outputs for the first four divider stages (2, 4 and 8) inside the chip as well as the output from the ‘mid-range’ 2048 divider.

At first glance, the requirement for a separate transistor oscillator stage might appear strange, since the 4060 has an on-chip oscillator. Unfortunately, the reset input on the 4060 not only resets all of the divider stages, which is desirable, it also halts the oscillator, which is most definitely not! So, an external oscillator stage is necessary.

I tested two different versions of the transistor oscillator. The alternate version is required for use with low frequency ‘tuning fork’ 32768 Hz and 38 kHz resonators. This schematic is shown in Figure 4. Both oscillators are quite reliable, working with both standard and higher speed HC CMOS devices. Some other transistor oscillator designs reported as being suitable for CMOS did not work reliably for me when tested with one or other CMOS logic family type.


 

Figure 4 : An alternative oscillator configuration for low frequency crystals




Design Example

While a spreadsheet is available here, this section describes the ‘pen and paper’ design approach to using these two designs. In this example, I’ll show how I configured the 4060 two-chip version for the 33.5 mS cycle time square wave I needed for my digital dial.

Required Output:     29.85075 Hz (33.5 mS cycle time)
Version:                     Two-chip (4060) type

Available resonators: 32768 Hz, 38000 Hz, 455 kHz, 500 kHz

Note: These were just the ones available from my junk box. The latter two ceramic resonators are typical of those found in TV and video remote controls. Other readers will probably have other crystals, ceramic resonators, and ‘tuning fork’ type crystals.

Method:

1.    Divide each available crystal frequency by the required output frequency

        i.e.     Crystal frequency (Hz) / 
Required output frequency (Hz)   =  Result

2.    Find one of these results which is an integer, or at least very close to an integer value

        e.g.     32768 / 29.85075 = 1097.727863        No
                    38000 / 29.85075 = 1272.999841        Possible
                    455000 / 29.85075 = 15242.49809      No
                    500000 / 29.85075 = 16749.99791      Possible   

3.    Check if the integer value can be supported by the binary divider you have selected

Check 38 kHz:

Closer evaluation of the 38 kHz crystal option shows that the available division ratios are limited to results of 1264 and 1280 (i.e. 1024 + 128 + 64 + 32 +16 = 1264 and 1024+256 = 1280). To set the resulting outputs to the correct value would require the 38 kHz crystal to be tuned by about 200 to 300 Hz. Tuning fork type crystals just cannot shift that far, say by adjusting the values of the oscillator capacitors, at least with this circuit. So, the 38 kHz option was rejected.

Check 500 kHz:

For the 500 kHz resonator option, the nearest divider ratios of 16384, 256, 64, 32 and 16 = 16752. An exact output of 29.85075 Hz requires a slightly adjusted crystal frequency of 500.05 kHz. This is well within the adjustment range of a ceramic resonator. Testing confirmed this was a suitable option, and the 500kHz resonator was used in the final circuit.

Note: In fact, since the actual frequency of 500 kHz ceramic resonators can be varied by up to 5% by varying the capacitor values in the oscillator, divider ratios of 16384, 256 and 16 (16384+256+16 = 16656) was the setting finally used. This requires fewer diodes. The resonator was able to be adjusted to about 497.19 kHz to give the required output clock frequency of 29.85075 Hz, and that was the final configuration used in the digital dial.

References

1.    See www.cypress.com and follow the links to the programmable oscillator chips. One example of many is the CY22392 device.


Downloads

Click here here to download the Excel spreadsheet




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